MVG OverviewDrawing Primitives

This specification defines the features and syntax for Magick Vector Graphics (MVG), a modularized language for describing two-dimensional vector and mixed vector/raster graphics in ImageMagick. You can use the language to draw from the command line, from an MVG file, from an SVG -- Scalable Vector Graphics file or from one of the ImageMagick program interfaces. Use this command, for example, to render an arc:


convert -size 100x60 canvas:skyblue -fill white -stroke black \
  -draw "path 'M 30,40  A 30,20  20  0,0 70,20 A 30,20  20  1,0 30,40 Z '" \
  arc.png

and here is the result:

When the drawing gets sufficiently complex, we recommend you assemble the graphic primitives into a MVG file. For our example, we use piechart.mvg:

push graphic-context
  viewbox 0 0 624 369
  affine 0.283636 0 0 0.283846 -0 -0
  push graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      fill 'darkslateblue'
      stroke 'blue'
      stroke-width 1
      rectangle 1,1 2199,1299
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      font-size 40
      fill 'white'
      stroke-width 1
      text 600,1100 'Average: 20.0'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      fill 'red'
      stroke 'black'
      stroke-width 5
      path 'M700.0,600.0 L340.0,600.0 A360.0,360.0 0 0,1 408.1452123287954,389.2376150414973 z'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      font-size 40
      fill 'white'
      stroke-width 1
      text 1400,140 'MagickWand for PHP'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      font-size 30
      fill 'white'
      stroke-width 1
      text 1800,140 '(10.0%)'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      fill 'red'
      stroke 'black'
      stroke-width 4
      rectangle 1330,100 1370,140
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      fill 'yellow'
      stroke 'black'
      stroke-width 5
      path 'M700.0,600.0 L408.1452123287954,389.2376150414973 A360.0,360.0 0 0,1 976.5894480359858,369.56936567559273 z'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      font-size 40
      fill 'white'
      stroke-width 1
      text 1400,220 'MagickCore'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      font-size 30
      fill 'white'
      stroke-width 1
      text 1800,220 '(29.0%)'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      fill 'yellow'
      stroke 'black'
      stroke-width 4
      rectangle 1330,180 1370,220
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      fill 'fuchsia'
      stroke 'black'
      stroke-width 5
      path 'M700.0,600.0 L976.5894480359858,369.56936567559273 A360.0,360.0 0 0,1 964.2680466142854,844.4634932636567 z'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      font-size 40
      fill 'white'
      stroke-width 1
      text 1400,300 'MagickWand'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      font-size 30
      fill 'white'
      stroke-width 1
      text 1800,300 '(22.9%)'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      fill 'fuchsia'
      stroke 'black'
      stroke-width 4
      rectangle 1330,260 1370,300
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      fill 'blue'
      stroke 'black'
      stroke-width 5
      path 'M700.0,600.0 L964.2680466142854,844.4634932636567 A360.0,360.0 0 0,1 757.853099990584,955.3210081341651 z'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      font-size 40
      fill 'white'
      stroke-width 1
      text 1400,380 'JMagick'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      font-size 30
      fill 'white'
      stroke-width 1
      text 1800,380 '(10.6%)'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      fill 'blue'
      stroke 'black'
      stroke-width 4
      rectangle 1330,340 1370,380
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      fill 'lime'
      stroke 'black'
      stroke-width 5
      path 'M700.0,600.0 L757.853099990584,955.3210081341651 A360.0,360.0 0 0,1 340.0,600.0 z'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      font-size 40
      fill 'white'
      stroke-width 1
      text 1400,460 'Magick++'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      font-size 30
      fill 'white'
      stroke-width 1
      text 1800,460 '(27.5%)'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      fill 'lime'
      stroke 'black'
      stroke-width 4
      rectangle 1330,420 1370,460
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      font-size 100
      fill 'white'
      stroke-width 1
      text 100,150 'ImageMagick'
    pop graphic-context
    push graphic-context
      fill 'none'
      stroke 'black'
      stroke-width 5
      circle 700,600 700,960
    pop graphic-context
  pop graphic-context
pop graphic-context

to render a pie chart with this command:


convert mvg:piechart.mvg piechart.png

which produces this rendering:

However, in general, MVG is sufficiently difficult to work with that you probably want to use a program to generate your graphics in the SVG format. ImageMagick automagically converts SVG to MVG and renders your image, for example, we render piechart.svg with this command:


convert mvg:piechart.svg piechart.jpg

to produce the same pie chart we created with the MVG language.

Drawing is available from many of the ImageMagick program interfaces as well. ImageMagick converts the drawing API calls to MVG and renders it. Here is example code written in the MagickWand language:

(void) PushDrawingWand(draw_wand);
{
  const PointInfo points[6] =
  {
    { 180,504 },
    { 282.7,578.6 },
    { 243.5,699.4 },
    { 116.5,699.4 },
    { 77.26,578.6 },
    { 180,504 }
  };

  DrawSetStrokeAntialias(draw_wand,True);
  DrawSetStrokeWidth(draw_wand,9);
  DrawSetStrokeLineCap(draw_wand,RoundCap);
  DrawSetStrokeLineJoin(draw_wand,RoundJoin);
  (void) DrawSetStrokeDashArray(draw_wand,0,(const double *)NULL);
  (void) PixelSetColor(color,"#4000c2");
  DrawSetStrokeColor(draw_wand,color);
  DrawSetFillRule(draw_wand,EvenOddRule);
  (void) PixelSetColor(color,"#800000");
  DrawSetFillColor(draw_wand,color);
  DrawPolygon(draw_wand,6,points);
}
(void) PopDrawingWand(draw_wand);

MVG Overview

MVG ignores all white-space between commands. This allows multiple MVG commands per line. It is common convention to terminate each MVG command with a new line to make MVG easier to edit and read. This syntax description uses indentation in MVG sequences to aid with understanding. Indentation is supported but is not required.

Metafile wrapper syntax (to support stand-alone MVG files):


push graphic-context
  viewbox 0 0 width height
  [ any other MVG commands ]
pop graphic-context

Pattern syntax (saving and restoring context):


push pattern id x,y width,height
 push graphic-context
  [ drawing commands ]
 pop graphic-context
pop pattern

an example is (%s is a identifier string):


push defs
 push pattern %s 10,10 20,20
  push graphic-context
   fill red
   rectangle 5,5 15,15
  pop graphic-context
  push graphic-context
   fill green
   rectangle 10,10 20,20
  pop graphic-context
 pop pattern
pop defs

For image tiling use:


push pattern id x,y width,height
 image Copy ...
pop pattern

Note you can use the pattern for either the fill or stroke like:


stroke url(#%s)

or


fill url(#%s)

The clip path defines a clipping area, where only the contained area to be drawn upon. Areas outside of the clipping areare masked.


push defs
 push clip-path %s
  push graphic-context
   rectangle 10,10 20,20
  pop graphic-context
 pop clip-path
pop defs
clip-path url(#%s)

Drawing Primitives

Here is a complete description of the MVG drawing primitives:

Primitive Description
affine sx,rx,ry,sy,tx,ty
arc x0,y0 x1,y1 a0,a1
bezier x0,y0 ... xn,yn Bezier (spline) requires three or more x,y coordinates to define its shape. The first and last points are the knots (preserved coordinates) and any intermediate coordinates are the control points. If two control points are specified, the line between each end knot and its sequentially respective control point determines the tangent direction of the curve at that end. If one control point is specified, the lines from the end knots to the one control point determines the tangent directions of the curve at each end. If more than two control points are specified, then the additional control points act in combination to determine the intermediate shape of the curve. In order to draw complex curves, it is highly recommended either to use the Path primitive or to draw multiple four-point bezier segments with the start and end knots of each successive segment repeated.
border-color color
circle originx,originy perimeterx,perimetery
clip-path url(name)
clip-rule rule Choose from these rule types:
evenodd
nonzero
clip-units units Choose from these unit types:
userSpace
userSpaceOnUse
objectBoundingBox
color x,y method Choose from these method types:
point
replace
floodfill
filltoborder
reset
decorate type Choose from these types of decorations:
none
line-through
overline
underline
ellipse centerx,centery radiusx,radiusy arcstart,arcstop
fill color Choose from any of these colors.
fill-opacity opacity The opacity ranges from 0.0 (fully transparent) to 1.0 (fully opaque) or as a percentage (e.g. 50%).
fill-rule rule Choose from these rule types:
evenodd
nonzero
font name
font-family family
font-size point-size
font-stretch type Choose from these stretch types:
all
normal
ultra-condensed
extra-condensed
condensed
semi-condensed
semi-expanded
expanded
extra-expanded
ultra-expanded
font-style style Choose from these styles:
all
normal
italic
oblique
font-weight weight Choose from these weights:
all
normal
bold
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
gradient-units units Choose from these units:
userSpace
userSpaceOnUse
objectBoundingBox
gravity type Choose from these gravity types:
NorthWest
North
NorthEast
West
Center
East
SouthWest
South
SouthEast
image compose x,y width,height 'filename' Choose from these compose operations:
Method Description
clear Both the color and the alpha of the destination are cleared. Neither the source nor the destination are used as input.
src The source is copied to the destination. The destination is not used as input.
dst The destination is left untouched.
src-over The source is composited over the destination.
dst-over The destination is composited over the source and the result replaces the destination.
src-in The part of the source lying inside of the destination replaces the destination.
dst-in The part of the destination lying inside of the source replaces the destination.
src-out The part of the source lying outside of the destination replaces the destination.
dst-out The part of the destination lying outside of the source replaces the destination.
src-atop The part of the source lying inside of the destination is composited onto the destination.
dst-atop The part of the destination lying inside of the source is composited over the source and replaces the destination.
multiply The source is multiplied by the destination and replaces the destination. The resultant color is always at least as dark as either of the two constituent colors. Multiplying any color with black produces black. Multiplying any color with white leaves the original color unchanged.
screen The source and destination are complemented and then multiplied and then replace the destination. The resultant color is always at least as light as either of the two constituent colors. Screening any color with white produces white. Screening any color with black leaves the original color unchanged.
overlay Multiplies or screens the colors, dependent on the destination color. Source colors overlay the destination whilst preserving its highlights and shadows. The destination color is not replaced, but is mixed with the source color to reflect the lightness or darkness of the destination.
darken Selects the darker of the destination and source colors. The destination is replaced with the source when the source is darker, otherwise it is left unchanged.
lighten Selects the lighter of the destination and source colors. The destination is replaced with the source when the source is lighter, otherwise it is left unchanged.
linear-light Increase contrast slightly with an impact on the foreground's tonal values.
color-dodge Brightens the destination color to reflect the source color. Painting with black produces no change.
color-burn Darkens the destination color to reflect the source color. Painting with white produces no change.
hard-light Multiplies or screens the colors, dependent on the source color value. If the source color is lighter than 0.5, the destination is lightened as if it were screened. If the source color is darker than 0.5, the destination is darkened, as if it were multiplied. The degree of lightening or darkening is proportional to the difference between the source color and 0.5. If it is equal to 0.5 the destination is unchanged. Painting with pure black or white produces black or white.
soft-light Darkens or lightens the colors, dependent on the source color value. If the source color is lighter than 0.5, the destination is lightened. If the source color is darker than 0.5, the destination is darkened, as if it were burned in. The degree of darkening or lightening is proportional to the difference between the source color and 0.5. If it is equal to 0.5, the destination is unchanged. Painting with pure black or white produces a distinctly darker or lighter area, but does not result in pure black or white.
plus The source is added to the destination and replaces the destination. This operator is useful for animating a dissolve between two images.
add As per 'plus' but transparency data is treated as matte values. As such any transparent areas in either image remain transparent.
minus Subtract the colors in the source image from the destination image. When transparency is involved, Opaque areas will be subtracted from any destination opaque areas.
subtract Subtract the colors in the source image from the destination image. When transparency is involved transparent areas are subtracted, so only the opaque areas in the source remain opaque in the destination image.
difference Subtracts the darker of the two constituent colors from the lighter. Painting with white inverts the destination color. Painting with black produces no change.
exclusion Produces an effect similar to that of 'difference', but appears as lower contrast. Painting with white inverts the destination color. Painting with black produces no change.
xor The part of the source that lies outside of the destination is combined with the part of the destination that lies outside of the source.
copy-* Copy the specified channel in the source image to the same channel in the destination image. If the channel specified in the source image does not exist, (which can only happen for methods, 'copy-opacity' or 'copy-black') then it is assumed that the source image is a special grayscale channel image of the values to be copied.
change-mask Replace any destination pixel that is the similar to the source images pixel (as defined by the current -fuzz factor), with transparency.
interline-spacing pixels
interword-spacing pixels
kerning pixels
line x,y x1,y1
matte x,y method Choose from these methods:
point
replace
floodfill
filltoborder
reset
offset offset
opacity opacity Use percent (e.g. 50%).
path path
point x,y
polygon x,y x1,y1, ..., xn,yn
polyline x,y x1,y1, ..., xn,yn
pop clip-path
pop defs
pop gradient
pop graphic-context
pop pattern
push clip-path name
push defs
push gradient id linear x,y x1,y1
push gradient id radial xc,cy xf,yf radius
push graphic-context
push pattern id radial x,y width,height
rectangle x,y x1,y1
rotate angle
roundrectangle x,y x1,y1 width,height
scale x,y
skewX angle
skewX angle
stop-color color offset
stroke color
stroke-antialias 0 • 1
stroke-dasharray none • numeric-list
stroke-dashoffset offset
stroke-linecap type Choose from these cap types:
butt
round
square
stroke-linejoin type Choose from these join types:
bevel
miter
round
stroke-miterlimit limit
stroke-opacity opacity The opacity ranges from 0.0 (fully transparent) to 1.0 (fully opaque) or as a percentage (e.g. 50%).
stroke-width width
text "text"
text-antialias 0 • 1
text-undercolor color
translate x,y
viewbox x,y x1,y1