Advanced Linux Installation
It's possible you don't want to concern yourself with advanced installation under Linux or Linux systems. If so, you also have the option of installing a pre-compiled binary release or if you still want to install from source without all the fuss see the simple Install From Source instructions. However, if you want to customize the configuration and installation of ImageMagick under Linux or Linux systems, lets begin.
ImageMagick builds on a variety of Linux and Linux-like operating systems including Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD, Mac OS X, and others. A compiler is required and fortunately almost all modern Linux systems have one. Download ImageMagick.tar.gz from imagemagick.org or a mirror and verify the distribution against its message digest.
Unpack the distribution it with this command:
tar xvzf ImageMagick.tar.gz
Now that you have the ImageMagick Linux/Linux source distribution unpacked, let's configure it.
The configure script looks at your environment and decides what it can cobble together to get ImageMagick compiled and installed on your system. This includes finding a compiler, where your compiler header files are located (e.g. stdlib.h), and if any delegate libraries are available for ImageMagick to use (e.g. JPEG, PNG, TIFF, etc.). If you are willing to accept configure's default options, and build from within the source directory, you can simply type:
$ cd ImageMagick-7.0.11-11$ ./configure
Watch the configure script output to verify that it finds everything that you think it should. Pay particular attention to the last lines of the script output. For example, here is a recent report from our system:
ImageMagick is configured as follows. Please verify that this configuration matches your expectations. Host system type: x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu Build system type: x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu Option Value ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Shared libraries --enable-shared=yes yes Static libraries --enable-static=yes yes Module support --with-modules=yes yes GNU ld --with-gnu-ld=yes yes Quantum depth --with-quantum-depth=16 16 High Dynamic Range Imagery --enable-hdri=no no Delegate Configuration: BZLIB --with-bzlib=yes yes Autotrace --with-autotrace=yes yes DJVU --with-djvu=yes no DPS --with-dps=yes no FlashPIX --with-fpx=yes no FontConfig --with-fontconfig=yes yes FreeType --with-freetype=yes yes GhostPCL None pcl6 (unknown) GhostXPS None gxps (unknown) Ghostscript None gs (8.63) result_ghostscript_font_dir='none' Ghostscript fonts --with-gs-font-dir=default Ghostscript lib --with-gslib=yes no (failed tests) Graphviz --with-gvc=yes yes JBIG --with-jbig= no JPEG v1 --with-jpeg=yes yes JPEG-2000 --with-jp2=yes yes LCMS --with-lcms=yes yes LQR --with-lqr=yes no Magick++ --with-magick-plus-plus=yes yes OpenEXR --with-openexr=yes yes PERL --with-perl=yes /usr/bin/perl PNG --with-png=yes yes RSVG --with-rsvg=yes yes TIFF --with-tiff=yes yes result_windows_font_dir='none' Windows fonts --with-windows-font-dir= WMF --with-wmf=yes yes X11 --with-x= yes XML --with-xml=yes yes ZLIB --with-zlib=yes yes X11 Configuration: X_CFLAGS = X_PRE_LIBS = -lSM -lICE X_LIBS = X_EXTRA_LIBS = Options used to compile and link: PREFIX = /usr/local EXEC-PREFIX = /usr/local VERSION = 6.4.8 CC = gcc -std=gnu99 CFLAGS = -fopenmp -g -O2 -Wall -W -pthread MAGICK_CFLAGS = -fopenmp -g -O2 -Wall -W -pthread CPPFLAGS = -I/usr/local/include/ImageMagick PCFLAGS = -fopenmp DEFS = -DHAVE_CONFIG_H LDFLAGS = -lfreetype MAGICK_LDFLAGS = -L/usr/local/lib -lfreetype LIBS = -lMagickCore-Q16 -llcms -ltiff -lfreetype -ljpeg -lfontconfig -lXext -lSM -lICE -lX11 -lXt -lbz2 -lz -lm -lgomp -lpthread -lltdl CXX = g++ CXXFLAGS = -g -O2 -Wall -W -pthread
You can influence choice of compiler, compilation flags, or libraries of the configure script by setting initial values for variables in the configure command line. These include, among others:
- Name of C compiler (e.g.
cc -Xa) to use.
- Name of C++ compiler to use (e.g.
- Compiler flags (e.g.
-g -O2) to compile C code.
- Compiler flags (e.g.
-g -O2) to compile C++ code.
- Include paths (.e.g.
-I/usr/local) to look for header files.
- Library paths (.e.g.
-L/usr/local) to look for libraries systems that support the notion of a library run-path may require an additional argument in order to find shared libraries at run time. For example, the Solaris linker requires an argument of the form -R/path. Some Linux systems will work with
-rpath /usr/local/lib, while some other Linux systems who's gcc does not pass
-rpathto the linker, require an argument of the form
- Extra libraries (.e.g.
-l/usr/local/lib) required to link.
Here is an example of setting configure variables from the command line:
configure CC=c99 CFLAGS=-O2 LDFLAGS='-L/usr/local/lib -R/usr/local/lib' LIBS=-lposix
Any variable (e.g. CPPFLAGS or LDFLAGS) which requires a directory path must specify an absolute path rather than a relative path.
Configure can usually find the X include and library files automagically, but if it doesn't, you can use the --x-includes=path and --x-libraries=path options to specify their locations.
The configure script provides a number of ImageMagick specific options. When disabling an option --disable-something is equivalent to specifying --enable-something=no and --without-something is equivalent to --with-something=no. The configure options are as follows (execute
configure --help to see all options).
ImageMagick options represent either features to be enabled, disabled, or packages to be included in the build. When a feature is enabled (via --enable-something), it enables code already present in ImageMagick. When a package is enabled (via --with-something), the configure script will search for it, and if is properly installed and ready to use (headers and built libraries are found by compiler) it will be included in the build. The configure script is delivered with all features disabled and all packages enabled. In general, the only reason to disable a package is if a package exists but it is unsuitable for the build (perhaps an old version or not compiled with the right compilation flags).
Here are the optional features you can configure:
|--enable-shared||build the shared libraries and support for loading coder and process modules. Shared libraries are preferred because they allow programs to share common code, making the individual programs much smaller. In addition shared libraries are required in order for PerlMagick to be dynamically loaded by an installed PERL (otherwise an additional PERL (PerlMagick) must be installed.
ImageMagick built with delegates (see MAGICK PLUG-INS below) can pose additional challenges. If ImageMagick is built using static libraries (the default without
PIC compilation flags differ from vendor to vendor (gcc's is
|--disable-static||static archive libraries (with extension
|--disable-installed||disable building an installed ImageMagick (default enabled).
By default the ImageMagick build is configured to formally install into a directory tree. This the most secure and reliable way to install ImageMagick. Use this option to configure ImageMagick so that it doesn't use hard-coded paths and locates support files by computing an offset path from the executable (or from the location specified by the MAGICK_HOME environment variable. The uninstalled configuration is ideal for binary distributions which are expected to extract and run in any location.
|--enable-ccmalloc||enable 'ccmalloc' memory debug support (default disabled).|
|--enable-prof||enable 'prof' profiling support (default disabled).|
|--enable-gprof||enable 'gprof' profiling support (default disabled).|
|--enable-gcov||enable 'gcov' profiling support (default disabled).|
|--disable-openmp||disable OpenMP (default enabled).
Certain ImageMagick algorithms, for example convolution, can achieve a significant speed-up with the assistance of the OpenMP API when running on modern dual and quad-core processors.
|--disable-largefile||disable support for large (64 bit) file offsets.
By default, ImageMagick is compiled with support for large files (> 2GB on a 32-bit CPU) if the operating system supports large files. Some applications which use the ImageMagick library may also require support for large files. By disabling support for large files via
Here are the optional packages you can configure:
|--with-quantum-depth||number of bits in a pixel quantum (default 16).
Use this option to specify the number of bits to use per pixel quantum (the size of the red, green, blue, and alpha pixel components). For example,
The number of bits in a quantum determines how many values it may contain. Each quantum level supports 256 times as many values as the previous level. The following table shows the range available for various quantum sizes.
Larger pixel quantums can cause ImageMagick to run more slowly and to require more memory. For example, using sixteen-bit pixel quantums can cause ImageMagick to run 15% to 50% slower (and take twice as much memory) than when it is built to support eight-bit pixel quantums.
The amount of virtual memory consumed by an image can be computed by the equation (5 * Quantum Depth * Rows * Columns) / 8. This an important consideration when resources are limited, particularly since processing an image may require several images to be in memory at one time. The following table shows memory consumption values for a 1024x768 image:
|--enable-hdri||accurately represent the wide range of intensity levels.|
|--enable-osx-universal-binary||build a universal binary on OS X.|
|--without-modules||disable support for dynamically loadable modules.
Image coders and process modules are built as loadable modules which are installed under the directory [prefix]/lib/ImageMagick-X.X.X/modules-QN (where 'N' equals 8, 16, or 32 depending on the quantum depth) in the subdirectories
|--with-cache||set pixel cache threshold (defaults to available memory).
Specify a different image pixel cache threshold with this option. This sets the maximum amount of heap memory that ImageMagick is allowed to consume before switching to using memory-mapped temporary files to store raw pixel data.
|--without-threads||disable threads support.
By default, the ImageMagick library is compiled with multi-thread support. If this undesirable, specify
|--with-frozenpaths||enable frozen delegate paths.
Normally, external program names are substituted into the
|--without-magick-plus-plus||disable build/install of Magick++.
Disable building Magick++, the C++ application programming interface to ImageMagick. A suitable C++ compiler is required in order to build Magick++. Specify the CXX configure variable to select the C++ compiler to use (default
|--without-perl||disable build/install of PerlMagick, or
By default, PerlMagick is conveniently compiled and installed as part of ImageMagick's normal
|--with-perl=PERL||use specified Perl binary to configure PerlMagick.|
|--with-perl-options=OPTIONS||options to pass on command-line when generating PerlMagick's Makefile from Makefile.PL.
The PerlMagick module is normally installed using the Perl interpreter's installation PREFIX, rather than ImageMagick's. If ImageMagick's installation prefix is not the same as PERL's PREFIX, then you may find that PerlMagick's
|--without-bzlib||disable BZLIB support.|
|--without-dps||disable Display Postscript support.|
|--with-fpx||enable FlashPIX support.|
|--without-freetype||disable TrueType support.|
|--with-gslib||enable Ghostscript library support.|
|--without-jbig||disable JBIG support.|
|--without-jpeg||disable JPEG support.|
|--without-jp2||disable JPEG v2 support.|
|--without-lcms||disable LCMS support.|
|--without-lzma||disable LZMA support.|
|--without-png||disable PNG support.|
|--without-tiff||disable TIFF support.|
|--without-wmf||disable WMF support.|
|--with-fontpath||prepend to default font search path.|
|--with-gs-font-dir||directory containing Ghostscript fonts.
Specify the directory containing the Ghostscript Postscript Type 1 font files (e.g.
|--with-windows-font-dir||directory containing MS-Windows fonts.
Specify the directory containing MS-Windows-compatible fonts. This not necessary when ImageMagick is running under MS-Windows.
|--without-xml||disable XML support.|
|--without-zlib||disable ZLIB support.|
|--without-x||don't use the X Window System.
By default, ImageMagick uses the X11 delegate libraries if they are available. When --without-x is specified, use of X11 is disabled. The display, animate, and import sub-commands are not included. The remaining sub-commands have reduced functionality such as no access to X11 fonts (consider using Postscript or TrueType fonts instead).
|--with-share-path=DIR||Alternate path to share directory (default share/ImageMagick).|
|--with-libstdc=DIR||use libstdc++ in DIR (for GNU C++).|
configure is designed to ease installation of ImageMagick, it often discovers problems that would otherwise be encountered later when compiling ImageMagick. The configure script tests for headers and libraries by executing the compiler (CC) with the specified compilation flags (CFLAGS), pre-processor flags (CPPFLAGS), and linker flags (LDFLAGS). Any errors are logged to the file
config.log. If configure fails to discover a header or library please review this log file to determine why, however, please be aware that *errors in the
config.log are normal* because configure works by trying something and seeing if it fails. An error in
config.log is only a problem if the test should have passed on your system.
Common causes of configure failures are: 1) a delegate header is not in the header include path (CPPFLAGS -I option); 2) a delegate library is not in the linker search/run path (LDFLAGS -L/-R option); 3) a delegate library is missing a function (old version?); or 4) compilation environment is faulty.
If all reasonable corrective actions have been tried and the problem appears be due to a flaw in the configure script, please send a bug report to the ImageMagick Defect Support Forum. All bug reports should contain the operating system type (as reported by
uname -a) and the compiler/compiler-version. A copy of the configure script output and/or the relevant portion of
config.log file may be valuable in order to find the problem. If you post portions of
config.log, please also send a script of the configure output and a description of what you expected to see (and why) so the failure you are observing can be identified and resolved.
ImageMagick is now configured and ready to build
Once ImageMagick is configured, these standard build targets are available from the generated
- Build ImageMagick.
- sudo make install
- Install ImageMagick.
- make check
- Run tests using the installed ImageMagick (
sudo make installmust be done first). Ghostscript and Freetype are prerequisites, otherwise certain unit tests that render text and the EPS, PS, and PDF formats will likely fail.
- make clean
- Remove everything in the build directory created by
- make distclean
- remove everything in the build directory created by
make. This useful if you want to start over from scratch.
- make uninstall
- Remove all files from the system which are (or would be) installed by
sudo make installusing the current configuration. Note that this target is imperfect for PerlMagick since Perl no longer supports an uninstall target.
In most cases you will simply want to compile ImageMagick with this command:
Once built, you can optionally install ImageMagick on your system as discussed below.
Now that ImageMagick is configured and built, type:
to install it.
By default, ImageMagick is installs binaries in
/../usr/local/bin, libraries in
/../usr/local/lib, header files in
/../usr/local/include and documentation in
/../usr/local/share. You can specify an alternative installation prefix other than
/../usr/local by giving
configure the option --prefix=PATH. This valuable in case you don't have privileges to install under the default paths or if you want to install in the system directories instead.
To confirm your installation of the ImageMagick distribution was successful, ensure that the installation directory is in your executable search path and type:
magick logo: logo.gif identify logo.gif
The ImageMagick logo is displayed on your X11 display.
To verify the ImageMagick build configuration, type:
magick identify -list configure
To list which image formats are supported , type:
magick identify -list format
For a more comprehensive test, you run the ImageMagick test suite by typing:
Ghostscript is a prerequisite, otherwise the EPS, PS, and PDF tests will fail. Note that due to differences between the developer's environment and your own it is possible that a few tests may fail even though the results are ok. Differences between the developer's environment and your own may include the compiler, the CPU type, and the library versions used. The ImageMagick developers use the current release of all dependent libraries.
Build ImageMagick with this command:
rpmbuild --rebuild ImageMagick.src.rpm
After the build you, locate the RPMS folder and install the ImageMagick binary RPM distribution:
$ rpm -ivh ImageMagick-7.0.11-?.*.rpm
Perform these steps as an administrator or with the sudo command:
Install MacPorts. Download and install MacPorts and type the following commands:
sudo port -v install freetype +bytecode sudo port -v install librsvg sudo port -v install graphviz +gs +wmf +jbig +jpeg2 +lcms
This installs many of the delegate libraries ImageMagick will utilize such as JPEG and FreeType.
Install the latest Xcode from Apple.
Use the port command to install any delegate libraries you require, for example:
sudo port install jpeg
Now lets build ImageMagick:
Unpack and change into the top-level ImageMagick directory:
$ tar xvzf ImageMagick-7.0.11-11.tar.gz$ cd ImageMagick-7.0.11-11
./configure --prefix=/opt --with-quantum-depth=16 \ --disable-dependency-tracking --with-x=yes \ --x-includes=/usr/X11R6/include --x-libraries=/usr/X11R6/lib/ \ --without-perl"
sudo make install
To verify your install, type
/opt/local/bin/identify -list font
to list all the fonts ImageMagick knows about.
To test the ImageMagick GUI, in a new shell, type:
display -display :0
Although you can download and install delegate libraries yourself, many are already available in the GnuWin32 distribution. Download and install whichever delegate libraries you require such as JPEG, PNG, TIFF, etc. Make sure you specify the development headers when you install a package. Next type,
$ tar jxvf ImageMagick-7.0.11-?.tar.bz2
$ cd ImageMagick-7.0.11-11
$ export CPPFLAGS="-Ic:/Progra~1/GnuWin32/include"
$ export LDFLAGS="-Lc:/Progra~1/GnuWin32/lib"
$ ./configure --without-perl
$ sudo make install
Chances are the download, configure, build, and install of ImageMagick went flawlessly as it is intended, however, certain systems and environments may cause one or more steps to fail. We discuss a few problems we've run across and how to take corrective action to ensure you have a working release of ImageMagick
If the build complains about missing dependencies (e.g. .deps/source.PLO), add
--disable-dependency-tracking to your
configure command line.
Some systems may fail to link at build time due to unresolved symbols. Try adding the LDFLAGS to the
configure command line:
configure LDFLAGS='-L/usr/local/lib -R/usr/local/lib'
Dynamic Linker Run-time Bindings
On some systems, ImageMagick may not find its shared library, libMagick.so. Try running the
ldconfig with the library path:
Solaris and Linux systems have the
ldd command which is useful to track which libraries ImageMagick depends on:
ldd `which convert`
On occasion you may receive these warnings:
no decode delegate for this image format no encode delegate for this image format
This exception indicates that an external delegate library or its headers were not available when ImageMagick was built. To add support for the image format, download and install the requisite delegate library and its header files and reconfigure, rebuild, and reinstall ImageMagick. As an example, lets add support for the JPEG image format. First we install the JPEG RPMS:
yum install libjpeg libjpeg-devel
Now reconfigure, rebuild, and reinstall ImageMagick. To verify JPEG is now properly supported within ImageMagick, use this command:
magick identify -list format
You should see a mode of rw- associated with the JPEG tag. This mode means the image can be read or written and can only support one image per image file.
If PerlMagick fails to link with a message similar to libperl.a is not found, rerun
configure with the
--enable-shared --with-modules options.